By IANSlife Features
New Delhi: Remember, there is no such thing as a safe amount of smoking. Every puff of a cigarette releases harmful chemicals that effect both the baby and the mother. Smoking anytime during the pregnancy is harmful.
Quit Smoking before you are pregnant and have started planning a pregnancy or if you haven’t done that quit as soon as possible during pregnancy.
Second hand smoking is as dangerous as first hand smoking; and nicotine in E-Cigarette are equally harmful for baby.
The danger of smoking during pregnancy includes a higher incidence risk of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth and placental abruption, low birth weight babies and increased rate of neonatal mobility and mortality, congenital malformations. There is an increased chance of visual and hearing impairment, mental disability, cerebral palsy and sudden infant death syndrome.
The nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar in cigarette are responsible for these harmful effects. Newer studies shown that in utero exposure to smoking also has long term neonatal adverse outcomes such as impaired neurological development, endocrine dysfunction and oncogenesis. These continue to manifest in early as well as late childhood. Post- Delivery harmful effects on baby’s health are sudden infant death syndrome, attention deficit hyper activity (ADHD) disorder and poor academic performance in school.
Carbon Monoxide in cigarette smoke gets absorbed in the maternal body and rapidly binds to hemoglobin forms carboxyhemoglobin a baseline carboxyhemoglobin of 4 percent – 8percent; this is in contrast to nonsmokers who have an average of 0 percent – 1 percent of carboxyhemoglobin. These lower the oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin which leads to impaired oxygen delivery to the uterine muscle and feto placental unit, leading to impaired fetal growth and preterm birth.
The tar content in cigarette smoke forms a residue on the mucus membrane and lungs of the smokers. Tar contains the majority of carcinogens compounds which interfere with biochemical pathway. These lead to an increase in miscarriage and fetal growth problems and fetal teratogenic effects. The heavy metal cadmium in cigarette smoke is known to accumulate in the placenta circulation leading to fetal growth restriction.
Long term health risks for the baby have also been seen in women who smoked during pregnancy. These babies are more prone to cold, cough, lung problem, learning disabilities and physical growth problems which can be more severe if a mother continues to smoke after the baby is born.
5 dangers of smoking during pregnancy
Miscarriage and still birth due to effect of cigarette smoke on feto placental circulation.
Ectopic pregnancy due to effect of nicotine on contraction in the fallopian tube.
Placental abruption, this is a condition in which placenta separates from the uterus before the birth of the baby causing severe bleeding and endangering life of mother and baby. Placenta previa which means placenta remain in the lower part of the uterus completely or partially this is associated with bleeding problems during pregnancy again risking life of mother and baby.
Preterm birth and low birth weight babies-Numerous health risk associated with a preterm birth leading to increased neonatal morbidity and mortality, visual and hearing impairment.
Birth Defects most common types of problem are congenital heart defects, cleft lip and cleft palete.
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